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Begre

Begre
Signature Tyva3
Further names E-11, M-40
Region Tyva Republic, Russia
GPS Coordinates No exact coordinates available
Present location Minusinsk Museum of Regional History (Exhibition, No. 40)
Date Not known
Historical affiliation Yenisei Kyrgyz
Deciphered Yes
Characters 372
Glyphs 44
Map
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The inscription was found by Ošurkov in 1892 at the river Begre, a tributary of the Big Yenisei. The stone was transported to the Minusinsk Museum of Regional History in 1916 and catalogued under the number 40. It measures 143 x 39 x 27 centimetres. The text runs on all the four sides of the stone.

Editions: Radloff (1895: 314-317), Orkun (1940: 71-76), Malov (1952: 29-34), Batmanov, Kunaa (1963a: 24-27), Vasil'ev (1983: 19-20, 61, 92), Kormušin (1997: 270-276), Amanžolov (2003: 119-121), Bazïlxan (2005: 178, 330), Kormušin (2008: 102-104), Yıldırım, Aydın, Alimov (2013: 44-47), Kormuşin, Mozioğlu, Alimov, Yıldırım (2016: 72-76)

Transliteration

Front side
  1. tẄrpA . IčrkIḅn . ḅŝygrmIYšDA . LNmŝmKWYmA . BWngA . DRLDmA . sIzmA . kẄnAYA . zDmA
  2. ẄčWGLmADRLDmAYIṬAḅẅkmdmAKṬGLNGL
Left side
  1. bšygrmI . YšmDA . TBGčKNGA . BRDMA . rrdmmẄčn . LPWN . LTWN . kẄmšg . grItbAeldA . kIšI : KzGNDmA
  2. ytI : bẄrI . ẄlrdmA . BRšG . kẅkmkg . ẄlrmdmA[1]
Back side
  1. yrmAYIṬAšWBmADRLDmABWngAsIzmA . YIṬA
  2. BWDNmA . kInmAKDšmA . DRLDmA . bẅkmdmA
  3. elmAKNmAbẅkmdmA . YšmytIytmšzDmA .
  4. YṬDAtẄŋrmA . DRLṬmA
  5. ndLGDšmAndšIzmAdgẄŝmADRLDmA
Right side
  1. skIzDKLGBRMGẄčtẄYILKItẄktIyRDmAndA . bẅkmdmAYṬAẄrŋmgAKRAmGAzDmA

Transcription

Front side
  1. tör apa ičräki bän bäš yägirmi yašda alïnmïšïm[2] qunǰuyïm a buŋ a adrïldïm a äsizim a[3] kün a ay a azdïm a
  2. üč oγlïm adrïldïm a ayïta[4] bökmädim a qatïγlanγïl
Left side
  1. bäš yigirmi yašïmda tabγač qanγa bardïm a är ärdämim üčün alpun altun kümüšig ägri täbä eldä kiši qazγandïm a
  2. yäti böri ölürdim a barsïγ kökmäkig ölürmädim a
Back side
  1. yärim a ayït a subïm a adrïldïm buŋ a äsizim a ayït a
  2. bodunïm a äkinim a qadašïm a adrïldïm a bökmädim a
  3. elim a qanïm a bökmädim a yašïm yäti yätmiš azdïm a
  4. yatda tüŋürim a adrïltïm a
  5. andlïγ adašïm a andsïzïm a ädgü äšim a adrïldïm a
Right side
  1. säkiz adaqlïγ barïmïγ[5] [...] yïlqï tükäti [...] anda bökmädim a ayït a ürüŋimgä qaramγa azdïm a

Translation

Front side
  1. I am Tör Apa, from the ruling class. O my consort whom I married when I was fifteen! O, what a grief! I departed! May thou say! O Sun and Moon! I have lost my way!
  2. O my three sons, I departed. May thou say! I did not get fully satiated! Exert yourself!
Left side
  1. O, I was fifteen when I went to the Tabgach khan! Because of my manly virtues and toughness I acquired gold, silver, humped camels and people for the realm.
  2. I killed five wolves! I did not kill large felines or deer!
Back side
  1. O my land, may thou say, o my water! I departed! O, what a grief! O my sorrow! May thou say!
  2. O my people, o my progeny, o my kinsmen! I departed! I did not get fully satiated!
  3. O my realm, o my khan! I did not get fully satiated! I was sixty seven. I lost my way!
  4. O my relations by marriage being in foreign countries! I departed!
  5. O my sworn and unsworn comrades, o my good companion! I departed!
Right side
  1. [...] my eight legged properties. I went [...] livestock completely. I did not get fully satiated there! May thou say! I lost my noblemen and common people!

Comments

  1. The final word on the left side in line 2 is written most probably mistakenly as <RlrmdmA>. The correct form should have been <ẄlrmdmA>, cf. <R> and <>.
  2. The word alïnmïšïm is not a finite form as sometimes suggested in the literature, see e.g. 'ja byl vzjat (na vospitanie k kitajcam)' in Malov (1952: 29), but a non-finite participle headed by the noun qunǰuy.
  3. Tekin (1964) was the first who has pointed out that the runiform letters <sIz> are to be read as äsiz 'alas'.
  4. The runiform letters <YITA> are read as ayït a, that is the 2nd person imperative of the verb ayït- 'to say' with interjection.
  5. The phrase säkiz adaqlïγ barïm most likely describes properties or belongings of the pastoral nomads pulled by four legged draught animals on four wheeled carts, hence the number eight.

Inventory of glyphs

A  
A  
e  
I  
W  
Ẅ  
b  
ḅ  
B  
č  
D  
d  
D  
d  
g  
G  
K  
k  
ẅk  
L  
l  
L  
m  
n  
n  
N  
nd  
ŋ  
ng  
 
p  
R  
r  
s  
š  
ŝ  
t  
Ṭ  
Y  
y  
Y  
z  
z  

Pictures and drawings

Radloff (1896: LXXXV)  
Radloff (1896: LXXXV)  
Radloff (1896: LXXXV)  
Malov (1952: 28)  
Vasil'ev (1983: 61)  
Amanžolov (2003: 119)  
Amanžolov (2003: 120)  
Bazïlxan (2005: 330)  

References

Amanžolov, Altaj Sersanovič 2003. Istorija i teorija drevnetjurkskogo pis'ma. Almaty: Mektep. Yenisei, Orkhon, Talas

Batmanov, Igor' Alekseevič & Kunaa, Aleksandr Čajbarovič 1963a. Pamjatniki drevnetjurkskoj pis'mennosti tuvy 2. Kyzyl: Tuvinskoe knižnoe izdatel'stvo. Yenisei

Bazïlxan, Näpil (ed.) 2005. Qazaqstan tariyxï turalï türki derektemeleri II: Köne türik bitiktastarï men yeskertkišteri (Orxon, Yenisey, Talas). Almatï: Dayk-Press. Yenisei, Talas, Orkhon

Kormušin, Igor' Valentinovič 1997. Tjurkskie enisejskie ėpitafii: teksty i issledovanija. Moskva: Nauka. Yenisei

Kormušin, Igor' Valentinovič 2008. Tjurkskie enisejskie ėpitafii: grammatika, tekstologija. Moskva: Nauka. Yenisei

Kormuşin, İgor & Mozioğlu, Emine & Alimov, Risbek & Yıldırım, Fikret 2016. Yenisey - Altay - Kırgızistan Yazıtları ve Kâǧıda Yazılı Runik Belgeler. Ankara: BilgeSu. Yenisei, Talas, Turkestan

Malov, Sergej Efimovič 1952. Enisejskaja pis'mennost' tjurkov: teksty i perevody. Moskva & Leningrad: Nauka. Yenisei

Orkun, Hüseyin Namık 1940. Eski Türk Yazıtları 3. İstanbul: Devlet Basımevi. Yenisei

Radloff, Wilhelm 1895. Die alttürkischen Inschriften der Mongolei. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Yenisei, Orkhon

Radloff, Friedrich Wilhelm 1896. Atlas der Alterthümer der Mongolei 3. St. Petersburg: Akademie. Yenisei, Orkhon

Tekin, Talat 1964. On a Misinterpreted Word in the Old Turkic Inscriptions. Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 35: 134–144.

Yenisei, Orkhon, Talas

Thomsen, Vilhelm 1916. Turcica. Études concernant l'interprétation des inscriptions turques de la Mongolie et de la Sibérie (Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 37). Helsingfors: Société Finno-Ougrienne. Orkhon, Yenisei

Vasil'ev, Dmitrij Dmitrievič 1983. Korpus tjurkskix runičeskix pamjatnikov bassejna Eniseja. Leningrad: Nauka. Yenisei

Yıldırım, Fikret & Aydın, Erhan & Alimov, Risbek 2013. Yenisey - Kırgızistan Yazıtları ve Irk Bitig. Ankara: BilgeSu. Yenisei, Talas, Turkestan