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Elegest I

Elegest I
Signature Tyva2
Further names E-10, Elegeš, Elegesch, Körtle Han, Ouloukem Elegesta
Region Tyva Republic, Russia
GPS Coordinates No exact coordinates available
Present location Minusinsk Museum of Regional History (Exhibition, No. 19)
Date Not known
Historical affiliation Yenisei Kyrgyz
Deciphered Yes
Characters 406
Glyphs 40
Map
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The inscription was found by Aspelin in 1888 on the left bank of the river Elegest, about seven kilometres far from its influx. The stone was transported to the Minusinsk Museum of Regional History in 1915 and catalogued under the number 19. It measures 320 x 66 x 20 centimetres.

Editions: Radloff (1895: 311-314), Orkun (1940: 179-183), Malov (1952: 25-28), Vasil'ev (1983: 18, 60, 88-89), Aalto (1991: 35-37), Kormušin (1997: 228-242), Bazïlxan (2005: 177, 329), Kormušin (2008: 100-102), Yıldırım, Aydın, Alimov (2013: 40-44), Kormuşin, Mozioğlu, Alimov, Yıldırım (2016: 68-72)

Transliteration

  1. KWYDA : KWYmA : szmA : YIṬA : ẄzdA WGLm : szmA : DRLṬmA : YIṬA
  2. yẄzr : KDšm WYRN : Ẅčn : yẄzrn : lg : Ẅkzn : tkdI [...]
  3. kẄẅktŋrIdA : kẄnYszrmš : YIṬA : szmA : DRLṬmA
  4. KNm : elmA : szmA : YIṬA [] bẅkmdm : KNmelmA : YIṬA : DRLṬm
  5. kẄrtlKN : LWRngWLṬWNLG: ks : gnn [] bldA [] : ṬWKzskzWn : YšDA
  6. WrngWkẄlg : ṬwK : bẄgẄtrknA : Kngm : bg : rdm : Ẅčn : b[]
  7. KRA : ḄWDNm : KṬGLNng eltẄrsn : IDmng : YIṬA : sz : lm : KNm
  8. elmWGRNṬA : sẄ : ḄWLp : rlrmdẅkmYwK : čblgdA : brtgmdA : skz : r : lrdm
  9. elmWṬšŋAbIrKILNW []
  10. ḄWng : ḄngA : ḄnḄṬrms : Ẅldm : YIṬA : szmA : YLQnYnA
  11. tẄrtDK : YILKm : skzDK : LG : BRmm : ḄWngm : YWwK : rdm
  12. KDšmA : kenmA : DRLṬmA : YIṬA : KRA : BWDNmA : DRLṬm : YIṬA : mn

Transcription

  1. quyda[1] qunǰuyïm a äsizim a[2] ayït a[3] özdä oγlïm äsizim a adrïltïm a ayït a
  2. yüz är qadašïm uyurïn üčün yüz ärin älig öküzin []
  3. kök täŋridä kün ay äsiz ärmiš ayït a äsizim a adrïltïm a
  4. qanïm elim a äsizim a ayït a [] bökmädim qanïm elim a ayït a adrïltïm
  5. körtlä qan[4] al uruŋu altunlïγ käšig [] bäldä [] toquz säkiz on yašda
  6. uruŋu külig toq bögü tärkän a qaŋïm bäg ärdäm üčün []
  7. qara bodunïm qatïġlanïŋ el törösin ïdmaŋ ayït a äsiz älim qanïm
  8. elim uγrïnta sü bolïp [][5] yoq [] säkiz är []
  9. elim []
  10. buŋ baŋa [] bat ärmiš öldim ayït a äsizim a []
  11. tört adaq yïlqïm säkiz adaqlïγ barïmïm[6] buŋïm yoq ärdim
  12. qadašïm a äkenim a adrïltïm a ayïta qara bodunïm a adrïltïm ayït a män

Translation

  1. O my consort in the secluded place! O my sorrow! May thou say! O my son in the valley! O my sorrow! O, I departed. May thou say!
  2. Because of the capability of my hundred kinsmen […] with hundred kinsmen and fifty oxen.
  3. Both the Sun and the Moon in the blue sky were weighed down in sorrow. May thou say! O my sorrow! O, I departed.
  4. O my khan, o my realm! O my sorrow! May thou say! […] I did not get fully satiated. My khan, my realm! May thou say sorrow! I departed.
  5. [I am] Körtlä khan, the Al Uruŋu. […] a golden quiver […] round my waist. I was seventy nine.
  6. O Uruŋu Külig Tok Bögü Tärkän! Because of the merit of my father, the beg […]
  7. Exert yourself my common people! Do not repudiate the unwritten law of the realm! May thou say, my sorrowful people and khan!
  8. My realm set up an army in the right time […] eight men […]
  9. My realm […]
  10. The grief was […] to me. I died. May thou say, o my sorrow! […]
  11. My four legged livestock, my eight legged properties. I did not get grief.
  12. O my kinsmen, o my progeny! I departed. May thou say! O my common people! I departed. May thou say!

Comments

  1. We interpret the words quy and öz as two different parts of a valley: a secluded, protected part and a central, open one, respectively.
  2. Tekin (1964) was the first who has pointed out that the runiform letters <sIz> are to be read as äsiz 'alas'.
  3. The runiform letters <YITA> are read as ayït a, that is the 2nd person imperative of the verb ayït- 'to say' with interjection.
  4. The letters <kẄrtlKN> are interpreted by Tekin (1995: 20), Kormušin (1997: 236-237, 2008: 101) and Sertkaya (2017) as körtlä qan. Since the final vowel of körtlä is not written, it is either a mistake in the inscription or the two words were handled by the author as one unit, i.e. a compound. See the inscription Elegest II with plene writing of the vowel in <kẄrtlA> körtlä. Cf. the word körtlä 'beautiful' appearing in other Old Turkic sources. The interpretations kürt el kan by Orkun (1940: 180) and kört äl kan by Malov (1952: 26) are unlikely.
  5. The runiform letters <rlrmdẅkmYwK> are interpreted by Sertkaya (1995: 739) as er ölürmedüküm yok '(düşman askeri) öldürdüm' and (2010: 211-212) är ölürmädükim 'er (savaşçı) öldürmediğim', whereas Kormušin (2008: 101) reads ärlärmädükim joq 'ja (lično) ne poražal voinov (vraga)'. Since neither is convincing, we leave this passage for the time being uninterpreted.
  6. The phrase säkiz adaqlïγ barïm most likely describes properties or belongings of the pastoral nomads pulled by four legged draught animals on four wheeled carts, hence the number eight.

Inventory of glyphs

A  
A  
e  
I  
W  
Ẅ  
b  
B  
Ḅ  
č  
D  
d  
D  
G  
g  
G  
K  
wK  
k  
ẅk  
wK  
L  
l  
m  
N  
n  
ŋ  
ng  
ng  
 
R  
r  
s  
š  
t  
Ṭ  
Y  
y  
z  
z  

Pictures and drawings

Radlov (1893: LXXIV)  
Vasil'ev (1983: 60)  
Vasil'ev (1983: 60)  
Aalto (1991: 35)  
Aalto (1991: 36)  
Bazïlxan (2005: 329)  

References

Aspelin, Johann Reinhold & Donner, Otto 1889. Inscriptions de l'Iénissei: recueillies et publiées par la Société finlandaise d'archeologie. Helsingfors: Imprimerie de la Société de littérature finnoise. Yenisei

Aalto, Pentti 1991. Old Turkic epigraphic materials (Gathered by J. G. Granö). Journal de la Société Finno Ougrienne 83: 7–78.

Yenisei

Bazïlxan, Näpil (ed.) 2005. Qazaqstan tariyxï turalï türki derektemeleri II: Köne türik bitiktastarï men yeskertkišteri (Orxon, Yenisey, Talas). Almatï: Dayk-Press. Yenisei, Talas, Orkhon

Kormušin, Igor' Valentinovič 1997. Tjurkskie enisejskie ėpitafii: teksty i issledovanija. Moskva: Nauka. Yenisei

Kormušin, Igor' Valentinovič 2008. Tjurkskie enisejskie ėpitafii: grammatika, tekstologija. Moskva: Nauka. Yenisei

Malov, Sergej Efimovič 1952. Enisejskaja pis'mennost' tjurkov: teksty i perevody. Moskva & Leningrad: Nauka. Yenisei

Orkun, Hüseyin Namık 1940. Eski Türk Yazıtları 3. İstanbul: Devlet Basımevi. Yenisei

Radlov, Vasilij Vasil'evič 1893. Atlas drevnostej Mongolii 2. Sanktpeterburg: Nauka. Yenisei, Orkhon

Radloff, Wilhelm 1895. Die alttürkischen Inschriften der Mongolei. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Yenisei, Orkhon

Sertkaya, Osman Fikri 1995. Göktürk tarihinin meseleleri: Yenisey yazıtlarının yayınlarındaki bazı okuma ve anlamlandırmaların düzeltilmesi, yeni okuma ve anlamlandırma teklifleri. Türk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı-Belleten 1993: 67–75.

Yenisei

Sertkaya, Osman Fikri 2010. Yenisey yazıtlarından 10, 25, 41, 51, 70, 109 ve 110 üzerine etimolojik açıklamalar ile düzeltmeler. In I. Uluslararası Uzak Asya'dan Ön Asya'ya eski türkçe bilgi şöleni bildirileri (18-20 Kasım 2009, Afyonkarahisar/Türkiye) (Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Yayınları 80), Cengiz Alyılmaz & Özgür Ay & Metin Yılmaz (ed.), 210-228. Afyonkarahisar: Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi.

Yenisei

Sertkaya, Osman Fikri 2017. Yenisey Yazıtlarından E-10’da KẄRTL, E-52’de İse KẄRTLA Şeklinde Geçen Kelimeyi ‘Kür(ü)t(ü)l’ mü Yoksa ‘Körtle’ mi Okumalıyız?. Journal of Old Turkic Studies 1: 113–127.

Yenisei

Tekin, Talat 1964. On a Misinterpreted Word in the Old Turkic Inscriptions. Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 35: 134–144.

Yenisei, Orkhon, Talas

Tekin, Talat 1995. Elegest (Körtle Han) Yazıtı. Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları 5: 19–32.

Yenisei

Thomsen, Vilhelm 1916. Turcica. Études concernant l'interprétation des inscriptions turques de la Mongolie et de la Sibérie (Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 37). Helsingfors: Société Finno-Ougrienne. Orkhon, Yenisei

Vasil'ev, Dmitrij Dmitrievič 1983. Korpus tjurkskix runičeskix pamjatnikov bassejna Eniseja. Leningrad: Nauka. Yenisei

Yıldırım, Fikret & Aydın, Erhan & Alimov, Risbek 2013. Yenisey - Kırgızistan Yazıtları ve Irk Bitig. Ankara: BilgeSu. Yenisei, Talas, Turkestan

Kormuşin, İgor & Mozioğlu, Emine & Alimov, Risbek & Yıldırım, Fikret 2016. Yenisey - Altay - Kırgızistan Yazıtları ve Kâǧıda Yazılı Runik Belgeler. Ankara: BilgeSu. Yenisei, Talas, Turkestan